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1999 2000 2001

Human misuse of fire (accompanied with deforestation during the past years) and over-grazing practices were no doubt

largely reasons for most of the forest destruction. Unfortunately unrestricted grazing and uncontrolled fires -caused

accidentally and often due to agricultural burnings-, still occur throughout Albania.

A well-organized fire prevention program is still absent in Albania. A permanent observation-signalisation system/net

(with several fire towers per district) is available in fire-endangered forests of the whole country and operated by the

Forest Service during the fire season. The existing fire suppression infrastructure and equipment still needs to be

upgraded while the professional skills of the forest staff in forest fire suppression and suspension should be upgraded

and strengthened. To further improve the monitoring system during the fires season it's of primary importance to set up

an appropriate specific meteorological and environmental network of measurements - dispersed inside and near the

forest areas.

Forest fires are the most important one of destruction factors causing the big losses of benefits for the national economy

by destroying the forest resources base. More than 50 % of Albanian forests have sensitive characteristics with regard to

forest fire. The forest fires are considered to be among the main persistent factors to the destruction of forests in


2.6 Exposure to Risk

Albanian is generally highly disposed to the forest fire risk. The scientific community has identified and analysed

various factors that influence in the level of exposure of a given area to the forest fire risk. They have developed a

formula where all these factors are taken into account to determine the exposure level of various forest areas. Based to

the results derived by the application of this formula {GRLI=Log (Nf*Sb/Sa*Sb*CvSb)}


GRLI - general risk logarithmic index (multifunctional assessment about the damage expected by forest fires)

Nf - number of fires - occurrence by districts

Sb - burned surface by districts

Sa - affected areas by districts

CvSb - Coefficient of variation of the series of burned surfaces by districts

it is be possible to determine the distribution of forest wildfire risk exposure by districts. Based on a logarithmic

calculation of quartiles, the derived results are visualized in Figure 6.

Districts names General Risk Logaritmic Index

In addition, it comes out that the coefficient of correlation between the series of above-mentioned formula results and

the total forest areas by districts, has a non significant value 0.15 and a coefficient of determination only 0.02. These

two indicators are supporting the idea that the total forest surface of districts does not have any kind of significant

influence to the risk level (as can be thought). So, it confirms again that the reasons are related to other factors, as has

been mentioned before and related to the human activities, meteorological conditions, vegetative situation of trees, etc.

2.7 Typology of Areas Affected by Fires

At the following graph is presented in percentage the situation in different places (different vegetation cover) where is

observed the fire, between the burned and affected cases - occurrence; and the burned and affected surfaces. There is

clearly evidenced that generally for fires in pasture areas, about 85% of observed cases are accompanied by burned

situations. Regarding the surface in 66% of them is verified the burned situation, which are the highest value related to

the other forest environments (composition)




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